East Point Lighthouse stands about 118 feet from the high-tide line on South Jersey’s Delaware Bay shore, but it used to be much further away.
The historic structure at the mouth of the Maurice River was 460 feet from the high-water mark when it was inspected in 1908, according to the Maurice River Historical Society, which has helped to restore the lighthouse, and is keeping a careful eye on its proximity to the ocean. By 2008, the margin shrunk to 174 feet, and then to 118 feet in 2013.
The measurements indicate not only that the ocean is encroaching on this isolated corner of New Jersey’s coastline, but also that the pace of its approach has more than tripled from three feet a year for the first 105 years in which it was monitored to 11 feet a year since 2008.
The shrinking distance between the bay and the lighthouse is just one local sign of global sea-level rise that was highlighted in the latest report from the U.N.’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, which said on March 31 that coastal communities are threatened by rising oceans that are being swollen by melting polar ice caps.
The report warned that coastal floods and other effects of climate change would worsen unless carbon emissions are cut worldwide.
An even more dire report released yesterday by the IPCC found that the global rate of greenhouse gas emissions rose by 2.2 percent annually in the 2000-2010 period, almost double the 1.3 percent yearly increase from 1970-2000, suggesting even more drastic steps need to be taken to avert dangerous climate change.
"Things are going to have to change if we want to control climate change,'' said Dr. Leon Clarke, senior research economist at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
The report says delaying aggressive steps to reduce carbon dioxide emissions that contribute to global warming will only result in more limited, more costly options.
In the nearby community of East Point, whose single row of 13 houses is built on the very edge of the bay shore, owners continue to repair and rebuild after the devastation of Sandy, and try to prepare for whatever the elements may throw at them in future.
Some have elevated their houses, and others have built up bulkheads but all, it seems, are determined that their dream of a waterfront view won’t be destroyed by fears of more monster storms or seas lapping at their foundations.
“When you get a full moon and a strong tide, the water will hit the bulkhead,” said David Feenan, who recently bought his 720-square-foot house for $55,900 after the previous owner decided that he didn’t want to deal with another Sandy. The value of the house is down from its peak of $289,000, Feenan said.
He has rebuilt a bay-side deck that was washed away in the storm, and has installed a concrete seawall whose top is just two feet above an old wooden bulkhead. During a high tide, the water can rise as far as the top of the bulkhead, he said. He has no plans to rebuild a dock after the storm destroyed all but three of its pilings, which remain semi-submerged a few yards offshore.
With only two feet of extra protection from the bay, Feenan’s house could be exposed to storm surges, and could even be at risk from the general ocean level that’s expected to rise by three feet or more along the Jersey coast by the end of the 21st century.
He won’t be raising the house and doesn’t have flood insurance because he doesn’t have a mortgage so doesn’t have to meet those requirements. And he is not too concerned about predictions of rising seas in coming decades because, at 49, he figures he won’t be around if or when it happens.
“In 30 years, I probably won’t be here, so I’m not too worried,” he told NJ Spotlight.
Feenan, who works part-time for a mortgage company, sold up in Brigantine, where his previous house survived Sandy unscathed, but where he felt hurt by post-Sandy criticism that owners of shore properties should not be putting themselves in harm’s way.
In his new location, where he plans to live year-round, Feenan won’t be seeking a bailout in the event of another mega-storm or ocean inundation.
“I’m not asking the country to pay for me,” he said.
Across the Maurice River to the west, rising sea levels are eating away at other parts of Cumberland County’s coastline, flooding roads, eroding beaches, and killing forests with salt-water inundation.
Despite skepticism from some residents that the flooding is a result of global sea-level rise, the expectation of bigger storms and higher waters in years to come underlies a recent report on how to defend the county’s bay shore.
Along the Atlantic coast, too, communities are facing frequent flooding, and wondering how to respond.
In Little Egg Harbor Township, flooding of streets near the shore has been a more frequent problem since Sandy, said Mike Fromosky, Assistant Township Administrator.
He estimated that neighborhoods such as Osborn Island, a community of about 500 residents on the edge of Little Egg Harbor, get water in the streets once a month, and are especially vulnerable when a high tide combines with a northeast wind.
Fromosky said sea-level rise probably contributes, but he suspects that Sandy is mostly to blame for the flooding because of its massive disruption of coastal channels that left back bays such as Little Egg Harbor more exposed to the Atlantic Ocean.
Gene Kobryn, deputy mayor of the township where some 4,000 houses were damaged during Sandy, said sea level is coming up, albeit slowly, and is adding to the challenge of coastal development in areas like Osborn Island.
The island’s residential area, which was built on a lagoon about 50 years ago, needs to be dredged but work has been delayed by the state’s Department of Environmental Protection because of concerns about the environmental effects of dredging, Kobryn said.